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小升初英语语法精选讲解

英语语法 时间:2018-11-29 我要投稿
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  小升初英语语法大全:现在完成进行时

  现在完成进行的形式

  I / we / they have been + 动词的现在分词

  He / she / it has been + 动词的现在分词

  现在完成进行的功用

  1) 表示一个在过去开始而在最近刚刚结束的行动,如:

  Ann is very tired. She has been working hard.

  Why are you clothes so dirty? What have you been doing?

  2) 表示一个从过去开始但仍在进行的行动,如:

  It has been raining for two hours. (现在还在下)

  Jack hasn’t been feeling very well recently.

  3) 表示一个从过去开始延续到现在,可以包括现在在内的一个阶?#25991;冢?#37325;复发生的行动,如:

  She has been playing tennis since she was eight.

  4) 现在完成时强调动作行为的结果、影响,而现在完成进行时只强调动作行为本身,如:

  Tom’s hands are very dirty. He has been repairing the car.

  The car is going again now. Tom has repaired it.

  注意:

  现在完成时有否定结构、而现在完成进行时没有否定结构。

  现在完成时态可表示做完的时期以及?#24310;?#30340;经验、但现在完成进行时不可以。

  现在完成进行时的否定结构

  在当代英语中,现在完成进行时有时也可用否定结构。如:

  Since that unfortunate accident last week, I haven’t been sleeping at all well. 自从?#29616;?#21457;生了那次不幸事故之后,我一直睡得很不好.

  He hasn’t been working for me and I haven’t has that much contact with him. 他并没有给我工作过,我和他没有过那许多接触。

  否定句构成:

  主语+has/have+not+been+现在分词

  一般疑?#31034;?#26500;成:

  Have/has+主语+been+现在分词+其他

  小升初英语语法大全:情态动词must与have to的用法

  must 的用法

  一、表义务,“必须”。例如:

  You must talk to them about their study. 你必须同他们谈谈关于他们学习的事。

  二、在否定结构中表不许。例如:

  You mustn't leave here. 你不能离开这儿。

  三、表推测,暗含有很大的可能性。例如:

  He must be ill. He looks so pale. 他肯定是病了。他的?#25104;?#37027;么苍白。

  注意:之前我们说过 may 也可以表猜测,但是 may 暗含的可能性较小,must 暗含的可能性较大。另外否定的猜测是用can't。例如:

  The baby can't be ill. He is so active. 那宝宝不大可能是病了。他那么活跃。

  四、表不可避免,“必然要,必定会”。例如:

  All men must die. 人总有一死。

  五、表主张,“坚持要,一定要”。例如:

  If you must go, at least wait till the rain stops. 如果你坚持要走,至少也要等雨停了再走。

  六、关于 must 的简短回答:

  -Must I clean the dining room at once? 我必须马上打扫膳厅吗?

  -Yes, you must. 是的。

  -No, you needn't. / No, you don't have to. 不必马上打扫。

  have to 的用法

  一、have to 表客观的需要和义务,must 表主观的认识。例如:

  I missed the train, so I had to take a taxi. 我没搭上火车,所以我只得打的。(客观上需要打的)

  I must study hard. 我必须努力学习。(主观上认为应该努力学习)

  二、在疑?#31034;?#21644;否定句中,have to 多用助动词 do 构成,must 则直接提前或加not。例如:

  Did he have to do it? = Must he do it? 他得做那件事吗?

  而且在否定句中,have to 表不需要,must 表不允许:

  You don't have to go there. 你不需要去那儿。

  You mustn't go there? 你不可去那儿。

  小升初英语语法大全:介词短语的运用

  什么叫做介词短语

  介词 + 名词(或者代词,或者相当于名词的其他词类、短语、从句)= 介词短语

  in the morning 在早晨

  under the tree 在树下

  from China 来自中国

  *注意区别“介词短语”和“短语介词?#20445;?/p>

  介词短语是(介词 + 名词性短语),可以单独作为句子成分;

  短语介词是(一个相当于介词的短语),不能单独作为句子成分。

  短语介词:

  according to 根据

  ahead of 在……之前

  apart from 在……之外

  because of 由于

  by means of 以……之手段

  by way of 作为

  介词短语的位置

  一、位于动词之后表示位置

  She lives in Shanghai.

  她住在上海。

  The children are playing in the street now.

  现在孩?#29992;?#22312;街上玩。

  二、位于动词之后表示?#36739;?/strong>

  He went into the kitchen.

  他到厨房里去。

  三、位于句首表示突出、对照

  In the garden everything was so beautiful.

  花园里一切都是那么美丽。

  四、位于句首,倒装主谓

  Behind me lay the fields.

  在我的后面是一片田野。

  On the desk is a bag.

  桌子上有一个袋子。

  五、位于名词之后,用于限制前面的名词

  The apple on the plate is for you.

  盘子上的?#36824;?#26159;给你的。

  小升初英语语法大全:延续性动词的用法特征

  一、延续性动词和非延续性动词的概念

  英语中,动词按其动作发生的方式、动作发生过程的长短,可分为延续性动词和非延续性动词。

  延续性动?#26102;?#31034;能够延续的动作,这种动作可以延续下去或产生持久影响。如:learn, work, stand, lie, know, walk, keep, have, wait, watch, sing, read, sleep, live, stay等。

  非延续性动词也称终止性动词、瞬间动词或短暂性动词,表示不能延续的动作,这种动作发生后立即结束。如:open, close, finish, begin, come, go, arrive, reach, get to, leave, move, borrow, buy等。

  二、延续性动词的用法特征

  1. 延续性动词可以用于现在完成时,其完成时态可与表示“时间段”的状语连用。

  表示时间段的短语有:for+一段时间(eg: for two years), since从句(eg: since he came here), since+时间点名词(eg: since last year), during the past three years, how long, for a long time等。

  例:I have learned English since I came here. 自从我来到这儿就学习英语了。

  2. 延续性动词不能与表示短暂时间的“时间点”状语连用。

  如:It raind at eight yesterday morning.(误)rain为延续性动词,而at eight表示“时间点?#20445;?#21069;后显然矛盾。

  如果要用延续性动?#26102;?#31034;一瞬间的动作,可以借助come, begin, get等非延续性动词来表示。上句可改为:It began to rain at eight yesterday morning.

  又如以下这段对话:

  -When did you get to know Jack? 你什么时候认识Jack的?

  -Two years ago. 两年前。

  -Then you've known each other for more than two years. 也就是?#30340;?#20204;俩认识两年多了。

  -That's right. 没错。

  小升初英语语法大全:dare的?#34903;?#29992;法

  Dare, meaning have the courage to do something, can also be used in two ways:

  Dare的意思是“有勇气做某事?#20445;?#23427;也有?#34903;?#29992;法:

  dare 作实义动词

  * as an ordinary verb followed by an infinitive with to, with s in the third person singular and with questions and negatives formed with do:

  作为实义动词时,接带to的不定式,第三人称单数作主语时加s,疑?#31034;?#21644;否定句用do来构成:

  He never dares to criticise her for wasting money and she doesn't dare to interrupt him when he's working.

  他从不敢批评她浪费钱,而她不敢打扰他工作。

  dare 作情态动词

  * as a modal auxiliary verb followed by an infinitive without to, with no third person singular s and with questions and negatives without do:

  作为情态助动词时,接不带to的不定式,第三人称单数作主语时不加s,疑?#31034;?#21644;否定句不需要用do来构成:

  Dare she tell him what she thinks about him? She daren't say anything. He will only shout at her. "How dare you speak to me like that?" he will say.

  她敢告诉他她对他的想法吗?她什么也不敢说。他只会对着她咆哮:“你怎敢那样对我说话?”他肯定会这么说。

  比较

  Differences in use are not as fixed or clear cut between doesn't dare to and daren't as they are between doesn't need to and needn't, except in expressions or collocations such as:

  doesn't dare to与daren't在用法上的差别不像doesn't need to和needn't那么固定或清晰,除了在以下这些表达和搭配中:

  * How dare you?

  你怎么敢?

  eg: How dare you walk away when I'm talking to you?

  我在跟你说话的时候你怎么敢走开?

  * I dare you to…

  我谅你不敢……

  I dare you to go up to him and ask him for a date.

  我谅你也不敢走到他面前请他跟你约会。

  * I dare say…

  我敢说……

  I dare say you're pretty hungry after all that cycling.

  我敢?#30340;?#39569;了那么久后肯定饿死了。

  In this last example, I dare say means I suppose.

  最后一例中的I dare say的意思是I suppose,我料想。

  小升初英语语法零基础:情态动词can与may的用法

  情态动词

  情态动词有一定的词义,但词义不完全,须同动词原形连用;

  情态动词没有人称和数的变化;

  疑?#31034;?#30452;?#24433;?#24773;态动词提前,否定句在情态动词后面加not。

  *情态动词中有一类是具有情态动词特征的词,如have to,但它有人称、数的变化,它的疑?#31034;?#21644;否定句的构成方式也和其他情态动词有所不同。

  can 的用法

  一、表能力,?#23567;?#33021;,会,能够”的意思。例如:

  -Can you drive a car? 你会开车吗?

  -Yes, I can. ?#19968;帷? No, I can't. 我不会。

  二、表允许,在口语中代替may,?#23567;?#21487;以”的意思。

  (见下面 may 的用法第四点)

  三、表示可能性,常用于否定句和疑?#31034;洹?#20363;如:

  Can it be true? 那会是真的吗?

  Today is Sunday. He can't be at school. 今天是星期天,他不可能在学校里。

  很多同学都不太清楚 can 与 be able to 的异同吧,赶快来学习一下吧

  may 的用法

  一、表示许可或征求对方的许可,?#23567;?#21487;以”的意思。例如:

  You may go now. 你可以走了。

  May I use your computer? 我用一下你的电脑可以吗?

  二、回答以 may 开头的疑?#31034;?#26377;如下表达法:

  -May I smoke here? 我可以在这儿抽烟吗?

  -Yes, you may. / Yes, please. 请抽吧。

  -No, you can't. / No, you mustn't. / No, you'd better not. 请不要抽烟。

  三、表示猜测,通常只用于陈述句。例如:

  You may be right. 你可能是对的。

  四、在口语中 can 可以代替 may 表示许可,但 can 较随便,may 更正式。例:

  Can I use your bike, John? 约翰,我可以用一下你的自行车吗?

  May I have a look at your license please, sir? 先生,我可以看一下你的执照吗?

  小升初英语语法大全:can have done用法小结

  can have done

  can have done 通常只用于否定句和疑?#31034;洹?#29992;于否定句时表否定推断,推测肯定没做;用于疑?#31034;?#26102;意为“难道真的做了吗?#20445;?#34920;示怀疑。例如:

  Can he have done such a foolish thing? (= Is it possible …?)

  他会做这样的傻事吗?(表怀疑)

  He can't have taken it home.

  他不可能把它带回家了。(表不可能)

  could have done

  could have done 可用于肯定句、疑?#31034;?#21644;否定句。用于肯定句既可以表示过去能够做而实际未做,有惋惜、遗憾或委婉批评之意,也可以表示对过去动作的推测;用于否定句和疑?#31034;?#30340;情况与can have done相同。例如:

  You could have done better, but you didn't try your best.

  你本可以做得更好,但是你没有尽力而为。(表惋惜)

  This glass is cracked. Someone could have dropped it.

  这个玻璃杯破了。可能是谁把它掉在地上了。(表推测过去)

  Could he have left the work unfinished?

  他会丢下工作不干了?(表怀疑)

  He couldn't have checked out so early.

  他不可能这么早就离开了。(表不可能)

  注意:can't have done 的语气比 couldn't have done 要强一些。例如:

  He can't have been to that town.

  他根本不可能去过那座城?#23567;?语气略强)

  The measurement couldn't have been wrong.

  测量不可能出错了吧。(语气稍弱)

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